In the United Kingdom, two substrates dominate the building market.

Structural Steel Frame

Steel frame is a building technique with a “skeleton frame” of vertical steel columns and horizontal I-beams, constructed in a rectangular grid to support the floors, roof and walls of a building which are all attached to the frame. The development of this technique made the construction of the skyscraper possible.

Structural steel frame

Concrete / Masonry

Masonry is the art of building a construction by assembling basic materials and, in some case, binding them using mortar. It is the mason’s craft by definition, as well as being the result of the mason’s work.

In order: vertical installation cladding with aluminium subframe, horizontal installation cladding with timber subframe, vertical installation cladding without subframe.

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